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到美國主修電影 - 選擇電影學課程及學院

有關 電影院校 排名及個別院校簡介 -> 請按此。   

另外此題目的英文版有不同內容 -> 請按右上角的語言選項[ENG]到訪。

大學電影糸vs電影學院

在美國,有許多公立和私立教育機構致力於電影教育。有大學的個電影專業學系,如USC、 UCLA、LMU、NYU及 U Wisconsin等;另有專注電影的學院,如AFI、NYFA等。

美國大學電影糸的特色

美國擁有全世界最多的大學藝術學院,有豐富的電影本科教育系。但美國大學不單衹培訓學生在專業方面的學識及技能,更同時提供Liberal Arts & Science 教育,務使學生可以學到相關學識如藝術史,文學,人文科學和設計方面等。看港學生在美國學習電影,可幫助推動香港甚至中國的電影進步,特别是技術方面。

Hollywood學電影

在商業電影的領域,美國Hollywood是獨領風騷;但最好的和最爛的電影都在荷李活。因為在這裡電影是一種產品,為滿足大眾市場或老闆的要求,其商業價是較藝術價值重要的。

電影專科可分兩大類

Film Studies是電影學:是純粹電影理論方面的研究,不需要拍攝作品,大部分考核以論文來完成。研究範圍涉獵較廣,包括電影歷史、理論及評論、也包括各地電影,由亞洲、印度、中東致歐洲等,又有女性電影、科幻電影以及電影產業等相關課程。

File Making是實踐電影製作:除了學習理論,還有劇本寫作、導演、拍攝、剪輯、創意媒體、後期製作等課程。

美國的電影學位

Bachelor(本科):一般大學的多提供BA(文學士)。專業和藝術學院多提供BFA(藝術學士)。

Assocate Degree (副學士):不少社區學院也提供有關電影及動畫製作課程,完成首兩年可轉入大學電影課程第三年。請聯絡本中心(查訊電話: 23919713)

Postgrad(後本科):一般MA(文學碩士)多為1至2年的Film Studies(電影學),主要學習和研究電影理論和知識。而提供MFA專科的學院,如AFI等,課程多為Film Production(電影製作),主要從事劇本寫作、電影製作、導演和後期工作。

PhD(博士):美國的電影學博士多集中在 U Wisconsin-Madison(威斯康州-麥迪遜大學)、Columbia University(哥倫比亞大學)及UT Austin(德州大學奧斯汀分校)。另一方面如UCLA、USC、NYU這三個主力電影大學也是高級電影理論培訓的主力。

註:FA=Fine Arts

美國演藝科學位

這些課程是訓練演員或舞蹈為主,一般综合大學、文理學院、藝術學院都會提供有關學立。社區學院則提供演藝的副學士。

院校設施

專科除理論外,一般是偏向實踐性的,所以一間學院如果設備先進,而且人均佔有率較高的當然是更理想的。

學費

一些電院學院學費可以很貴,所以要考慮家庭預算,由社區學院開始是省錢的途徑之一

“Great filmmakers start with a clear, independent vision, but bringing it to the big screen is all about collaboration.”

Majoring in Film

有關各類電影業的工作

電影製作:導演,編劇,製片人,攝影師,剪輯師

娛樂管理:發行商經理,公共關係主管,製片人,經紀人

設計專業:藝術指導,場景設計人員,道具

寫作專業:編劇,劇本校正

插畫專業:分鏡頭劇本,藝術概念插圖,佈景

數碼效果:後期的特殊效果,動畫,剪輯

數碼媒體:字幕效果,音樂,Blu-ray DVD製作,網頁媒體製作

交互設計:遊戲製作,網頁製作,Blu-ray DVD交互設計

電影製作:導演,助導,編劇,製作助理,製片人,攝影師,剪輯師

電影的四大類別

美國的電影業大致可分為Industry、Experimental、Documentary、Independent。

Industry 主流電影:如果你想現實些,把荷李活那一套製作手法學到手,用先進的設備拍片,那麼industry的商業模式就適合你了。

Experimental 實驗電影:如果你是終情文藝,喜歡視覺藝術,或玩些特别的新玩意的,可考慮experimental,

Documentary 紀錄片: 如果喜歡真實的記錄,探求真相,不喜歡勁搭佈景、齋講戲、齋作故仔的,那麼documentary,這條窄路可能適合你。

Independent 獨立製片:這是條很窄的路,找工作真的靠你自己的本事了。

如果你喜歡講故事,又不想太毋俗或太商業化,不甘於取悅主流大眾,又或想表達點自己的想法,那可選擇independent吧。(註:獨立電影是指完全獨立於主流電影公司的劇情,可能是由獨立公司製作與發行之外,亦可能是由大型電影公司附屬的小型製作室製作及發行。拍攝手法時常顯現出電影工作者的藝術觀點和手法,製作預算較低,上映規模較受限制。通常在發行前會先在各個地方的國際影展先放映。) 

就業前景

在美國的留學生,完成學業是要回港的。所以你要先研究一下香港的影視業的就業情況及發展前景。中國有很多大型影視公司,海外留學生有完善的知識,加上國際視野,可以考慮到祖國發展。選擇電影公司可以從事翦接、編輯、攝影、製作助理、副導演等工作開始,也可以到電視節目製作公司揾工。

People who work in the film industry (in USA), how difficult is it to actually get a job and how useful would a degree in film studies really be?  先看看一些美國行內人的意見

 “(on Intern) Make contacts. Become a production assistant and do everything in your power and not to hate your working life. “

“I want a be a screenwriter, but the closest I got [so far]is a stage hand on the set of a soap opera. If the pay wasn't good enough, I'd be utterly miserable. And I'm lucky to have gotten the job through my uncle.”

“This (film industry). It's not about what you know, it's about who you know. If you look at most big directors and producers, most started out small. David Fincher worked his way from special effects to a cameraman to what he is today.”

“I think this is a little misleading, in my experience it is about both who you know and what you know. I work in an animation studio and I can tell you, even the well-connected guys who have great people skills won't last if they don't have the practical skill. I can imagine the same goes for directors like David Fincher. Getting a foot in the door and making contacts is crucial for sure, but working on your technical and creative skills day and night and having a passion for your craft is fundamental.”

“Practical skills can be developed on the job, though. The trick is to get that first job to work your way up.

And I couldn't agree more when you say, "working on your technical and creative skills day and night and having a passion for your craft is fundamental." But that doesn't have anything to do with going to school. You can do all of this as a hobby.”

美籍華裔大導演在香檳大學(UIUC)拿了電影學士,再在紐約大學(NYU)進修電影碩仕;之後的七年基本上零收入。不少電影學院剛畢業的學生可能會發覺他們的工作性質和他們入學前的夢想有很大落差。例如有些可能在工作室日以繼夜地做翦輯,有些祗有接些Freelance工作。商業的電影製作其實和工廠裡的流水作業意義上很相似,日子耐了,你可能會厭惡這種「運輸帶旁」的工作;這時你可能會想想拍番部細電影,然後拿去參展,好啦!戲肉來了,資金可來呢?這時你要開始籌集費用,找老闆?製作公司、出道了的校友、富有的朋友  …  網上眾籌等;最重要你需要堅持你當初對電影業的熱誠。

film making in Hong Kong

院校地理位置的考慮

就各類院校所處的位置來說,美國一級電影學校集中洛杉磯(USC、UCLA、AFI)及其周邊(CalArts、Chapman、LMU)或在紐約(NYU、Columbia)等。其如有佛羅里達(FSU),較次的則在三藩市(SFAI)、芝加哥(CCC、SAIC)和奧斯丁(UT-Austin);剩下的大多在中部,但不可忽視別處一方的夏威夷(UH ACM、HPU)。總括來說,西部一般被公認為較放鬆及稍懶散layback的,東部則更“美國”,節奏較快,壓力較大。

洛杉磯 LA

如美國電影學院(AFI)、加州藝術學院(CalArts)、南加州大學(USC)、加州大學洛杉磯分校(UCLA)、查普曼大學(Chapman)、洛約瑪麗蒙特大學(LMU)等。

洛杉磯能成為世界娛樂之都,是因為它是世界電影產業中心,洛杉磯也是是世界電影教育中心,是世界上電影學院和大學電影糸最多的城市,有多達20所院校提供電影專科。

世界前十名電影學院中,洛杉磯約佔有五所,洛杉磯也是電影學生找工作的首選地,每年提供多達數千個職位。

夏威夷 Hawaii

夏威夷不僅是度假者的天堂,也是電影製作人的天堂,它有不同的景貌,可以創造出貌似於非洲的沙漠,南美的熱帶雨林,愛爾蘭的鄉村至大都市的景觀,加上近乎完美的天氣,所以很多荷李活電影及電視都喜歡在夏威夷取景,這包括了侏羅紀公園/侏羅紀世界Jurassic Park and Jurassic World、飢餓遊戲 Hunger Game、珍珠港 Pearl Harbor (理所當然的) 、加勒比海盜-驚濤怪浪Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides、早期的奪寶奇兵Raiders of the Lost Ark。

夏威夷政府很早己銳意發展其「創意產業Creative Industry」,包括影視、音樂、數碼媒體、動畫等,亦同時大力投資於這方面的高特教育。

夏威夷大學系統 University of Hawaii (UH) System早於2003年成立了旗下的創意媒體學院Academy for Creative Media (ACM),UH系統下的所有學院都參與其中,如UH Mano、UH West Oaho及KCC社區學院等。請參考UH ACM網頁來看看每所學院所提供的影視課程- http://acmsystem.hawaii.edu/academic-pathways/ . ACM提供三個核心課程(3 tracks)– 1.影視製作,2.電腦動畫及遊戲設計,3.批判性研究。ACM的學習目標包括批判性思維、寫作、歷史與美學、故事講述、創造力和責任等的技術及技能。每學期ACM的學生合共製作約100部短片,當地演員也可作為他們的演員。

往夏威夷學媒體創作的好處包括環境既舒適又安全、學費較其它美國院校便宜、院校提供獎學金、而且麗斯學生更可獨享住宿優惠。

紐約 NY

如紐約大學(NYU)、哥倫比亞大學(Columbia)、紐約城市大學(CUNY)、紐約視覺藝術學院(SVA)等。

紐約是世界經濟,藝術之都,也是不少美國大電影,傳媒公司總部所在地,這裡是資本家的樂園,也是獨立電影的聖地。開設電影專業的紐約大學和哥倫比亞大學都是全球頂尖的大學,且電影專業享譽世界,紐約大學校友也是近幾年奧斯卡的常客。除了擁有一定數量的電影學院,紐約也提供電影學生多方面實習就業工作機會,豐富的藝術文化娛樂生活為電影學生提供了全方面發展的機會。

芝加哥 Chicago

如哥倫比亞芝加哥學院(CCC)、西北大學(NWU)、芝加哥大學(U Chicago)、芝加哥藝術學院(SAIC)等。

芝加哥是美國中西部重要城市,曾是汽車業重鎮,文化氣息濃厚。

CCC則是美國最大的媒體藝術學院,提供多個電影專業、西北大學和芝加哥大學的電影以學術研究為主、芝加哥藝術學院以藝術電影創作為主。

缺點是芝加哥沒有龐大的電影產業落戶,所以很多電影畢業生要去其他城市就業。

佛羅里達 Florida - 邁阿密,奧蘭多, 塔拉哈西

如佛羅里達州立大學(FSU)、邁阿密大學(U Miami)、福賽大學(Full Sail)

佛羅里達是地位僅次於紐約州,加州,德克斯州。邁阿密和奧蘭多兩大城市為核心,近些年來發展成為美國第二大娛樂之都,奧蘭多漸成為了第二個“洛杉磯”,遍布着迪斯尼,環球影城和各大音樂,傳媒製作等公司。美國國土面積巨大,東西部都要有娛樂之都,所以邁阿密和奧蘭多的崛起也不奇怪。三所電影學院:FSU、Miami、Full Sail 都比較重視專業技術學習,教學老師大多是好萊塢或加州派院校的校友,與洛杉磯關係密切。佛羅里達也是生產電影較多的地區,這裡還有一年四季的陽光,海灘,音樂和西班牙語。

波士頓 Boston

如愛默生學院(Emerson College) 、波士頓大學(BU)等。

波士頓是美國東海岸的重要城市,充滿學術氣氛,這兩所非常好的大學,在電影和電視製作領域略有名氣。波士頓沒有很多的電影製作機構,不過卻經常是電影人選景地方之一。

學生畢業後多會選擇南下去紐約求職,也有一些學生轉而從事電影藝術等相關工作。

 

以下是幾所學院影視科的本課課程給你們參考 (抱歉-僅提供英文>

Loyola Marymount University (LMU) - Film and Television Production, B.A.

For Students in Film and Television Production Undergraduate Program.

They will know:

The techniques of visual storytelling

The processes of producing, directing, screenwriting, cinematography, editing, sound recording and design, and set design

The current technologies involved in the creation of film or TV production

Strategies for future dissemination of their work

They will value:

A wide variety of cinematic forms of expression

The importance of film history

The diversity and contributions of fellow students

Collaboration and teamwork in the production process

Individual expression through cinematic and other forms

They will be able to:

Clearly communicate story, theme, and concept in their works

Create and treat content in innovative and imaginative ways

Apply learned techniques of film and television production to creative works of their own

Create or contribute to technically accomplished and aesthetically engaging films

Give constructive feedback, and implement revision of their own creative work based on feedback received

Balance creative and organizational skills

Practice teamwork

Four-Year Planning Guidelines

Each year, a normal course load is 15 semester hours or 5 courses per semester.

University core should be selected based on distribution of various disciplines as well as interests and availability.

Lower division major requirements should be completed by end of sophomore year.

45 semester hours of upper division coursework are required; these are comprised of upper division core requirements, upper division major requirements, and upper division electives taken.

Proper sequencing of major requirements is indicated by prerequisites of individual courses and as suggested in the outline below. Please consult assigned academic advisor.

PROD 200 and PROD 250 should be taken in opposite semesters sophomore year in either order.

Acting, drawing, photography, computer graphics, additional film history, screenwriting, and business classes are among suggested electives for Film and Television Production majors.

PROD Major Lower Division Requirements (21 semester hours)

Freshman Year (any semester)

FTVS 200 Survey of Mass Media 3 semester hours

FTVS 210 Art of the Cinema 3 semester hours or

FTVS 212 Art of Television 3 semester hours

PROD 180 Pre-Production 3 semester hours

Sophomore Year (any semester)

PROD 200 Introduction to Film Production 3 semester hours

*must earn B or better

PROD 250 Introduction to Television Production 3 semester hours

*must earn B or better

RECA 250 Sound Design 3 semester hours

SCWR 220 Beginning Screenwriting 3 semester hours

PROD Major Upper Division Requirements (30 semester hours)

PROD 365 Cinematography 3 semester hours

PROD 366 Post-Production 3 semester hours

PROD 379 Fundamentals of Directing 3 semester hours

SCWR 327 Writing for Narrative Production 3 semester hours or

PROD 326 Documentary Pre-Production 3 semester hours

PROD 300 Intermediate Narrative Film Production 3 semester hours or

PROD 350 Intermediate Documentary Production 3 semester hours

RECA 367 Production Sound 3 semester hours

FTVS UD Film, Television, and Media Studies:

*Must select any two courses (6 semester hours) from FTVS 300, 400, or 500 level. FTVS courses ending in 98 or 99 by permission of Chairperson.

PROD UD Advanced Production Techniques:

*Must select one course (3 semester hours) from PROD 466, PROD 469, PROD 476, PROD 479, and PROD 480. If choosing PROD 480, 3 total semester hours are required. PROD courses ending in 98 or 99 by permission of Chairperson.

Sophomore or Junior Year

PROD 365 Cinematography 3 semester hours

PROD 366 Post-Production 3 semester hours

PROD 379 Fundamentals of Directing 3 semester hours

SCWR 327 Writing for Narrative Production 3 semester hours or

PROD 326 Documentary Pre-Production 3 semester hours

Junior Year

PROD 300 Intermediate Narrative Film Production 3 semester hours

*must be taken concurrently with RECA 367 or

PROD 350 Intermediate Documentary Production 3 semester hours

*must be taken concurrently with RECA 367

RECA 367 Production Sound 3 semester hours

Junior or Senior Year

FTVS 313 History of American Film 3 semester hours or

FTVS 314 History of International Film 3 semester hours

FTVS Elective Film, Television, and Media Studies:

*Select one course (or three semester hours) from FTVS 300, 400, or 500 level.

PROD UD Advanced Production Techniques:

*Select one course (or three semester hours) from PROD 466, PROD 469, PROD 476, PROD 479, and PROD 480.

Senior Year

PROD 400 Advanced Narrative Film Production 3 semester hours or

PROD 450 Advanced Documentary Production 3 semester hours or

PROD 460 Directed Study in Production 3 semester hours

 

Columbia College Chicago (CCC) - Cinema Art and Science

Students will explore both the practice and theory of fundamental skills like inquiry, creativity, collaboration, experimentation and self-expression in preparation for the hands-on filmmaking emphasized in all our degree programs. This program offers nearly 200 specialized undergraduate and graduate courses ­ the most diverse and comprehensive curriculum of any film school in America.

As a Cinema Art and Science major, students will sharpen their creative voice while collaborating with their peers to produce character-driven films. They will learn the fundamentals of film production and leave prepared to succeed on any set in the world. The flexible curriculum allows them to specialize in a particular area or take a wide variety of courses to diversify your skill set.

The Cinema Art and Science BFA is a comprehensive degree designed for students who want to specialize in a particular area of film production.  They can choose from one of eight areas of concentration. The program is modeled on professional practice, and their coursework will equip them with the technical skills necessary to succeed in the film industry. This degree requires a collaboratively produced thesis - an intensive project that prepares students for direct entry in their chosen profession.

Concentrations:

Cinema Art and Science, Cinematography, BFA - Our Cinematography students acquire proficiency in photography for the screen. You’ll conceive and produce images that advance the thematic aspects of a script and work closely with the film’s director.

Cinema Art and Science, Cinema Visual Effects, BFA - As a Cinema Visual Effects student, you’ll study the technical, creative and physiological application of visual effects technology used to create and support cinematic stories.

Cinema Art and Science, Directing, BFA - This concentration is designed to prepare students in all aspects of film direction. Our course offerings allow you to hone your storytelling craft in collaboration with screenwriters, casting directors, editors, cinematographers and production designers.

Cinema Art and Science, Editing and Post-Production, BFA- Our Editing and Postproduction students learn to edit raw footage, manipulate audio files and add digital effects to film. You will be prepared for a career in film editing and other postproduction specializations.

Cinema Art and Science, Producing, BFA - This concentration highlights production management, legal affairs and a fully realized array of creative producing techniques. Choose from a wide array of Producing-specific electives to learn crucial techniques such as how to cast, scout locations, pitch a film or polish a script.

Cinema Art and Science, Production Design, BFA - This concentration provides training and practice in all aspects of cinema production design. As a Production Design student, you’ll explore the design and construction of studio sets, props, set decoration, special effects, costumes and makeup. The curriculum emphasizes collaboration with directors, producers and cinematographers; previsualization through research and concept art; time and resource management; and handcrafted fabrications.

Cinema Art and Science, Screenwriting, BFA - Screenwriting students hone their writing and communication skills to construct a cinematic and emotional experience for their audience. You will craft and edit scripts with your peers and master the fundamental elements of storytelling.

Cinema Art and Science, Sound for Cinema, BFA - The concentration prepares students to handle the various audio steps involved in preproduction, production, postproduction and the release of the motion picture. You’ll learn industry techniques such as how to mix sound, dub and craft believable sound effects.

 

University of Hawaii (UH) – Creative Media Academy (ACM)

The Creative Media Academic plan must consist of 36 credit hours (each year) that emphasis one of the three ACM tracks and includes 18 credit core of ACM courses and 6 credit hours of electives, 3 of which should come from a critical studies course outside of ACM.

Required core courses of all student majors (18 Credits)

ACM 255 – Cinema and Digital Media (3 credits)

One of the following (3 Credits each)

ACM 310 – Cinematic Narrative Production – For Digital Cinema and/or Critical Studies Track

or

ACM 316 3D Character Animation – For Animation and/or Critical Studies Track

*Note: A minimum grade of B in ACM 255 is a pre-requisite for both courses

One of the following (3 credits each)

ACM 350 – Screenwriting

or

ACM 355 – Oral Tradition to Screenplay

Any three of the following (3 credits each)

ACM 352/AMST 352 – Screening Asian Americans

ACM 360 – Indigenous Aesthetics

ACM 380 – Genre & Narrative Theory

ACM 382 – Authors in Creative Media

ACM 385 – Topics in Creative Media

ACM 460 – Ethics and Film

ACM 480 – Oceanic Media Culture

ACM 485 – Seminar in Creative Media

ACM 490 – Global Media

One of Three Major Tracks or sequence courses (at least 12 additional credits)

Note: The total number of credits will be determined in consultation with the ACM Advisor and reflected in the Academic Plan. Courses cannot count as both Core and Track.

DIGITAL CINEMA Track

312 – Cinematography

325 – Visual Effects

330 – Independent Producing

350 – Screenwriting

355 – Oral Tradition to Screenplay

370 – Directing the Actor on Screen

372 – Editing for the Screen

374 – Post Production Sound

375 – Directing the Camera

386 – Techniques in Creative Media

390 – Workshop in Creative Media

399 – Independent Group Project

405 – Documentary Production

410 – Advanced Cinematic Production

450 – Advanced Screenwriting

455 – Indigenous Filmmaking

495 – Creative Media Internship

499 – Directed Reading and Research

COMPUTER ANIMATION & GAME DESIGN [see Note 1] Track

215 – 3D Scene Design*

216 – 3D Character Animation*

315 – Narrative Game Design

316 – 3D Character Animation

317 – 3D Cinematography & Dynamics

318 – Drawing for Animation

320 – 3D Computer Animation Prod I

325 – Visual Effects

386 – Techniques in Creative Media

390 – Workshop in Creative Media

399 – Independent Group Project

415 – Computer Game Production

420 – Computer Animation Production II

495 – Creative Media Internship

499 – Directed Reading and Research

* Introductory courses are pre-requisites for the sequence, but cannot be counted toward the minimum 12-credit requirement

[Note 1] ACM ANIMATION COURSE FLOW

PREPARATION COURSES (PRE-REQUISITE COURSES FOR ACM 316 AND 318)

ACM 215 3D Scene Design – typically offered Spring semester

ACM 216 3D Animation – typically offered Spring semester

ANIMATION TRACK COURSE FLOW (REQUIRED COURSES)

Semester 1 (Fall)

ACM 316 3D Character Animation (Core Requirement)

Semester 2 (Spring)

ACM 320 3D Computer Animation Production I (Track Requirement)

Semester 3 (Fall)

ACM 420 Computer Animation Production II (Track Requirement)

ANIMATION ELECTIVES

ACM 317 3D Cinematography and Dynamics (prerequisite ACM 215) – typically offered in Fall semester

ACM 318 Classical 2D Full Animation – typically offered in Spring semester

ACM 325 Visual Effects – typically offered in Spring semester

ACM 399 Independent Project (group project)

ACM 495 Creative Media Internship

ACM 499 Directed Reading and Research (individual project)

CRITICAL STUDIES Track

352 – Screening Asian Americans

360 – Indigenous Aesthetics

380 – Genre & Narrative Theory

382 – Authors in Creative Media

384 – Study Abroad

385 – Topics in Creative Media

460 – Ethics and Film

480 – Oceanic Media and Culture

485 – Seminar in Creative Media

490 – Global Media

499 – Directed Reading and Research

ELECTIVES

Six credit hours (2 courses)

At least 3 credit hours (1 course) should be a film-related course outside of ACM

Electives must be 300 or 400 level courses

 

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