選科選校

返回

Biomimetic Robotics (模擬生物機械) 發展無可限量 - MIT工獵豹機器

Biomimetic Robotics (模擬生物機械) 發展無可限量 - 本中心轉載此文是希望有志於科學領域的同學,可考慮以上或有關學科如電子工程及電腦程式等。 MIT工程師製造出這個獵豹機器,大部份的核心配件都是自己研發出來的,使此計劃充滿挑戰。

獵豹機器人,觀看Youtube影片按此 -> https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LW7dnF7Ez8E

獵豹機器人 MIT工程師造獵豹機器 裝電池可奔跑時速16千米 獵豹機器人,它是一款與衆不同的機器人,設計靈感來自于世界上速度最快的陸地動物,而且由視頻遊戲技術控制。該款別具風格的機器人名爲獵豹(cheetah robot),靠電池帶動來。

資料來源 : 網易科技訊 12月2日消息 (編譯:曹建峰, 責任編輯:編程遊戲開發) 

獵豹機器人 - 網易科技訊 12月2日消息,它是一款與衆不同的機器人,設計靈感來自于世界上速度最快的陸地動物,而且由視頻遊戲技術控制。該款別具風格的機器人名爲獵豹(cheetah robot),靠電池帶動來奔跑,時速超過10英裏(16千米),騰躍高度約爲16英寸(40厘米),騰躍後可平穩著陸,然後能繼續奔跑至少15分鍾,與此同時,所需耗用之電量比微波爐還少。獵豹機器人重約70磅(31公斤)。

它是麻省理工學院(MIT)科研人員的創造物;因爲沒有現有技術,或者現有技術有缺陷,他們必須從零開始設計核心要素。

這些核心要素包括既動力強大又輕巧的馬達,控制12個馬達的電源供給的電子技術,以及決定在奔跑過程中腳著地的那一刹那應當運用的力度的運算法則。這些就是幫助獵豹機器人維持平衡以及提供向前的動力的關鍵要素。

一個機載計算機整理從各個傳感器傳來的數據,然後向每個馬達發布命令。“在機器人世界中,獵豹機器人差不多就是一輛法拉利賽車,好比我們必須把所有昂貴的零件裝配起來,然後使其渾然天成,真的使奔跑成爲一種本能,”MIT的Sangbae Kim教授說。“那是獲得那麽快的速度的唯一方式。”Kim教授是該校仿生機器人實驗室的主任,獵豹機器人就是該實驗室設計的。

Kim教授說,獵豹機器人原型在現實世界有很大的應用前景,包括變革性的假體肢設計、可穿戴技術、全地形輪椅以及可以像動物一樣在高低不平的地面穿梭的交通工具。在危險或者敵對環境中,如果派遣救援人員太過于危險的話,可以利用機器人來進行搜索和救援活動;在這一方面,獵豹機器人將來有希望派上用場。

“當獵豹機器人奔跑時,在奔跑過程中的每一步伐,我們計算出機器人雙腳所需運用的合適的力度,以便于它可以保持自身的平衡,”MIT的研究科學家Hae-Won Park說。Park編寫了複雜的運算法則,用以控制獵豹機器人。

獵豹機器人項目受美國國防部下屬的國防高級研究計劃局(U.S. Department of Defense's Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency)資助。設計制造獵豹機器人花了研究人員五年時間,而且需要研究人員有充分的自信,不去理會那些持消極態度的人的看法,那些人認爲電動機不夠強大,不能驅動一個由電池提供動力的機械獵豹。

研究人員還在繼續改進完善他們的獵豹機器人原型,打算增加更多的傳感器,最終會使獵豹機器人能夠自我控制,自主運行。“在未來十年,我們的目標是努力改進獵豹機器人,使其能夠在需要的時候拯救生命。”

編譯:曹建峰)(責任編輯:編程遊戲開發) 本文章原創來自:http://www.hack6.com QQ:283422135 (轉載請保留網站版權。侵權必究)

 

Bound for robotic glory - New algorithm enables MIT cheetah robot to run and jump, untethered, across grass.

Jennifer Chu | MIT News Office | September 15, 2014

Speed and agility are hallmarks of the cheetah: The big predator is the fastest land animal on Earth, able to accelerate to 60 mph in just a few seconds. As it ramps up to top speed, a cheetah pumps its legs in tandem, bounding until it reaches a full gallop.

Now MIT researchers have developed an algorithm for bounding that they’ve successfully implemented in a robotic cheetah — a sleek, four-legged assemblage of gears, batteries, and electric motors that weighs about as much as its feline counterpart. The team recently took the robot for a test run on MIT’s Killian Court, where it bounded across the grass at a steady clip.

In experiments on an indoor track, the robot sprinted up to 10 mph, even continuing to run after clearing a hurdle. The MIT researchers estimate that the current version of the robot may eventually reach speeds of up to 30 mph.

The key to the bounding algorithm is in programming each of the robot’s legs to exert a certain amount of force in the split second during which it hits the ground, in order to maintain a given speed: In general, the faster the desired speed, the more force must be applied to propel the robot forward. Sangbae Kim, an associate professor of mechanical engineering at MIT, hypothesizes that this force-control approach to robotic running is similar, in principle, to the way world-class sprinters race.

“Many sprinters, like Usain Bolt, don’t cycle their legs really fast,” Kim says. “They actually increase their stride length by pushing downward harder and increasing their ground force, so they can fly more while keeping the same frequency.”

Kim says that by adapting a force-based approach, the cheetah-bot is able to handle rougher terrain, such as bounding across a grassy field. In treadmill experiments, the team found that the robot handled slight bumps in its path, maintaining its speed even as it ran over a foam obstacle.

“Most robots are sluggish and heavy, and thus they cannot control force in high-speed situations,” Kim says. “That’s what makes the MIT cheetah so special: You can actually control the force profile for a very short period of time, followed by a hefty impact with the ground, which makes it more stable, agile, and dynamic.”

Kim says what makes the robot so dynamic is a custom-designed, high-torque-density electric motor, designed by Jeffrey Lang, the Vitesse Professor of Electrical Engineering at MIT. These motors are controlled by amplifiers designed by David Otten, a principal research engineer in MIT’s Research Laboratory of Electronics. The combination of such special electric motors and custom-designed, bio-inspired legs allow force control on the ground without relying on delicate force sensors on the feet. 

Kim and his colleagues — research scientist Hae-Won Park and graduate student Meng Yee Chuah — will present details of the bounding algorithm this month at the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems in Chicago.

Toward the ultimate gait

The act of running can be parsed into a number of biomechanically distinct gaits, from trotting and cantering to more dynamic bounding and galloping. In bounding, an animal’s front legs hit the ground together, followed by its hind legs, similar to the way that rabbits hop — a relatively simple gait that the researchers chose to model first.

“Bounding is like an entry-level high-speed gait, and galloping is the ultimate gait,” Kim says. “Once you get bounding, you can easily split the two legs and get galloping.”

As an animal bounds, its legs touch the ground for a fraction of a second before cycling through the air again. The percentage of time a leg spends on the ground rather than in the air is referred to in biomechanics as a “duty cycle”; the faster an animal runs, the shorter its duty cycle.

Kim and his colleagues developed an algorithm that determines the amount of force a leg should exert in the short period of each cycle that it spends on the ground. That force, they reasoned, should be enough for the robot to push up against the downward force of gravity, in order to maintain forward momentum.

“Once I know how long my leg is on the ground and how long my body is in the air, I know how much force I need to apply to compensate for the gravitational force,” Kim says. “Now we’re able to control bounding at many speeds. And to jump, we can, say, triple the force, and it jumps over obstacles.” 

In experiments, the team ran the robot at progressively smaller duty cycles, finding that, following the algorithm’s force prescriptions, the robot was able to run at higher speeds without falling. Kim says the team’s algorithm enables precise control over the forces a robot can exert while running.

By contrast, he says, similar quadruped robots may exert high force, but with poor efficiency. What’s more, such robots run on gasoline and are powered by a gasoline engine, in order to generate high forces.

“As a result, they’re way louder,” Kim says. “Our robot can be silent and as efficient as animals. The only things you hear are the feet hitting the ground. This is kind of a new paradigm where we’re controlling force in a highly dynamic situation. Any legged robot should be able to do this in the future.”

This work was supported by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.

Source: http://newsoffice.mit.edu/2014/mit-cheetah-robot-runs-jumps-0915

 

返回